There are five basic methods of irrigation (flooding, furrow irrigation, trickle, sprinkling, and sub irrigation). And there are several subcategories within each of these basic methods.And there are several subcategories within each of these basic methods.
It is done by submerging the soil with water, this method has advantages; it is easy to use, its cost is low, and it does not need trained workers, but it has the disadvantage that it is not possible to control the amount of water used for the plant, thus leading to the loss of large quantities of water, this method of irrigation is to divert water into natural slopes without much control Or preparation. It is usually a waste of water, and unless the ground is naturally level, the resulting watering will be completely uneven. This method is mainly used on pastures and native hay fields on steep slopes where abundant water is available and crop value does not require more expensive preparations. the controlled flooding can be e accomplished from held ditches or by use of borders, checks, or basins.Flooding from field ditches is often adaptable to lands with topography too irregular for other flooding methods. It is relatively inexpensive as it requires minimal preparation
Water is brought into the field in permanent trenches and distributed across the field in smaller ditches spaced to conform the topography, soil and flow rate. Under ideal conditions, the ditch spacing and flow rate should be such that the water will just infiltrate in the time it is flowing across the field. If the flow is too rapid, some of the water will not have time to infiltrate and surface waste will occur at the lower edge of the field.
If flow is too slow, excessive percolation will occur near the ditch, and too little water will reach the lower end of the field. The border method of flooding requires that the land be divided into strips 30 to 60 feet. wide and 300 to more than 1000 feet long. The strips are separated by low levees, or borders
Water is turned into each strip through a head gate along one of the narrow sides and flows downhill the length of the strip. Preparation of land for border strip irrigation is more expensive than for ordinary flooding, but this may be offset by a decrease in water waste because of the improved control. Check flooding is accomplished by turning water into relatively level plots, or checks, surrounded by levees.
When checking the submersion of the canals, the canals are filled with water at a rather high rate and allowed to stop in an infiltration unit. The method of basin flooding is accomplished by checking the water height adapted to the orchards. Basins are constructed around one or more trees depending on the topography, and the flow is turned into the basin to stand until it infiltrates.
The furrow is a narrow ditch between rows of plants. An important advantage of the furrow method is that only 0.2 to 0.5 as much surface area is wetted during irrigation as compared with flooding methods of irrigation and evaporation losses are correspondingly reduced. Furrow irrigation is adapted to lands of irregular topography.
The development of lightweight tubes led to a rapid increase in sprinkler irrigation after World War II. Sprinkler irrigation offers a means of irrigating irregular areas, where any surface irrigation method cannot be used. By using a lower supply rate, deep percolation or water runoff can be reduced.This method is good, but it needs a relatively high cost regarding the sprinkling equipment and permanent installations necessary to supply water to the sprinkler lines. In recent years, the labor costs of surface irrigation have increased which has attracted many farmers to use sprinkler irrigation.
Trickle Irrigation is that method of irrigation in which water (and nutrients) are continuously applied at the base of each plant through small plastic tubes;
virtually eliminates all evaporation from soil, deep percolation, and runoff, and leads to very high efficiency in the use of water. In this method, water is added in the form of drops directly under the plants, and it is placed within an irrigation network that ends with points of water exit. This method is suitable for sandy and desert lands. It saves water, but one of the disadvantages of this method is that the establishment of irrigation networks has a high cost, and it requires highly qualified labor.
Sub Surface Irrigation
it is used in a few areas where soil conditions are favorable for sub-irrigation. Water is delivered to the field in ditches spaced 50 to 100 ft apart and is allowed to seep into the ground to maintain the water table at a height; Low water flow rate is essential in supply ditches; nd free drainage of water must be permitted, either naturally or with drainage works, to prevent water logging of the fields. It is essential that the irrigation water be of good quality to avoid excessive soil salinity. Sub irrigation results in a minimum of evaporation loss and surface waste and requires little field preparation and labor.
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